Saturday, December 17, 2016

CLAUSE (NOUN CLAUSE and ADVERBIAL CLAUSE)


Assalamu'alaikum sobat Arum's blog. 

Sering kali kita belajar bahasa inggris dan menemukan istilah-istilah baru, mungkin dari bangku sekolah,,teman, buku, ataupun course. Tanpa disadari seringkali kita gunakan dan temui pada english conversation, reading and writing class. Istilah tersebut yaitu Noun Clause dan Adverbial Clause.  Berikut penjelasan dari Noun Clause dan Adverbial Clause.

A.    NOUN CLAUSE 
     Noun clause is a clause (subclause) that have a function as noun. This clause can be occupy its position in a sentence as subject, object of transitive verb, dan object of preposition.
      Example : What John is doing surprises me.
      Clause ‘What John is doing’ is noun clause that have function as subject from a verb ‘surprises’.

    Kinds of noun clause :
  1. Noun Clause from question (yes/no question and informative question)
-          Yes/no question
Conjunction :        whether (formal)
                                              If (informal)
       Example : I don’t know whether/if he has seen his friend. 
 Conjunction tersebut berasal dari kalimat tanya yang membutuhkan jawaban yes/no. Meskipun conjunction tersebut memiliki makna yang sama, tetapi ada sedikit perbedaannya.
Beberapa fungsi noun clause as yes/no question dalam sebuah kalimat yaitu :
a.       As subject
Noun clause dengan conjunction whether bisa menjadi subject of verb atau subject after it. Example :
-          Whether or not he will come tomorrow is still uncertain. (as subject of verb)
-          It is still uncertain whether or not he will come tomorrow. (as subject after it)
b.      As object
1.)    Object of transitive verb
Example : please see whether the children are ready to go school.
2.)    Object of preposition
Example : he made no command on whether a decision had been reached.

          Informative Question
a.       As pronoun
Conjunction : who (ever), whom (ever), what (ever), which.
Example : he will employ whoever will work hard.
b.      As modifier/adjective
Conjunction : whose, which, what.
Example : I do not know which shirt I will wear.
c.       As adverb
Conjunction : where (ever), when (ever), why, how (ever), how many, how much.
Example : I remember when she was appointed as a secretary.
      2. Noun Clause from exclamation
Conjunction : what, how.
Function : in a phrase = NP-APP (H meaning emotion)
            In a sentence : as subject of verb, subject after it, object of verb, object of preposition, object after it, adv-complement of adj.
Example : I am amazed at how wonderful this country.

      3.  Noun Clause from statement
Conjunction : that, the fact that.
The function in a phrase : NP-APP (H meaning aspect of possibilities, cognitive reasoning, personal belief)
The function in a sentence : as subject of verb, subject after it, object of verb, object after it, adv-complement of adj.
Example : We’re talking about the fact that our class will last longer than schedule. 

 4. Noun Clause from Command and request
Conjunction : that
Function in a phrase : NP-APP
Function in a sentence : as subject of verb, subject after it, object of verb, object after it, adv-complement of adj.
Example : discovering her friend moving that she not take too many programs.

B. ADVERBIAL CLAUSE

An adverbial clause is dependent clause introduced by an adverbial subordinator. It is used to modify the verb of the independent clause and tells when (time), where (place), why (reason), for what purpose, how, how long, and how far. It is also used to show contrast and concession.
1) PUNCTUATION RULES
An adverbial clause can come either before or after the independent clause.
Formula:
Adverbial clause + , + Independent clause (a comma after adverbial clause)
- Independent clause + Adverbial clause (no comma after adverbial clause)
Example:
As he didn’t understand, he asked the teacher to explain.
- He asked the teacher to explain as he didn’t understand.
2) TYPES OF ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
There are several different kinds of adverbial clauses; in addition, the subordinators can distinguish the different types of adverbial clauses.
a) Adverb Clause of Time
We use adverb clause of time to modify verb in main clause and to tell the time that an action takes place.
Subordinating Conjunctions: when, whenever, anytime, before, after, till, until, while, since, just as, as soon as, as often as, now that, as long as …
Example:
- She ran away while I was sleeping.
- While I was sleeping, she ran away.
b) Adverb Clause of Place
We use adverb clause of place to modify verb in main clause and to tell the place that an action takes place.
Subordinating Conjunctions: where, as far as, as near as, wherever, anywhere…
Example:
- She is always drunk wherever I meet her.
- Wherever I meet her, she is always drunk.
c) Adverb Clause of Manner
We use adverb clause of manner to modify verb in main clause and to tell how an action takes place.
Subordinating Conjunctions: as if, as though, as
Example:
- The boy speaks as if he is sick.
- As if he is sick, the boy speaks.
d) Adverb Clause of Cause/Reason
We use adverb clause of cause/reason to modify verb in main clause and to tell the cause that an action takes place.
Subordinating Conjunctions: because, as, for, that
Example:
- I come here because I want to meet you.
- Because I want to meet you, I come here.
e) Adverb Clause of Condition
We use adverb clause of condition to modify verb in main clause and to tell the condition that an action takes place or someone does something.
Subordinating Conjunctions: if, whether, if … not, unless, supposing that, provided that, in the condition that, as long as that
Example:
- I will commit suicide unless you love me.
- Unless you love me, I will commit suicide.
f) Adverb Clause of Purpose
We use adverb clause of purpose to modify verb in main clause and to tell the aim that someone does something or something happens.
Subordinating Conjunctions: so that, in order that,
Example:
- I tell him everyday in order that he can remember.
- In order that he can remember, I tell him everyday.
REMEMBER:
Sometimes we can use “so as to, in order to” to stand instead of “so that, in order that”.
Sentence + so that / in order that + subject + verb + complement.
Sentence + so as to / in order to + verb + complement.
Example:
- I bring my dictionary with me in order that I can check.
- I bring my dictionary with me in order to check.
g) Adverb Clause of Result/Consequence
We use adverb clause of result/consequence to modify verb in main clause and to tell the result that someone does something or something happens.
Subordinating Conjunctions: “that” is used to recognize adverb clause of result
Subject + verb + so + adjective/adverb + that + subject + verb + comp
Example:
- She is so hungry that she has lunch early.
- That she has lunch early, she is so hungry.
Subject + verb + such + noun(s) + that + subject + verb + complement
Example:
- She acts such a rude manner that no man loves her.
- That no man loves her, she acts such a rude manner.
h) Adverb Clause of Concession/Contrast
We use adverb clause of concession/contrast to modify verb in main clause and it is introduced by the below-written subordinating conjunctions:
Subordinating Conjunctions: though, however, even though, even if, although, so, in spite of the fact that, the fact that, despite that, whether or, granted that, whoever, whatever, whichever, no matter what, whereas, while
Example:
- I have never committed crime although I am poor.
- Although I am poor, I have never committed crime.
i) Adverb Clause of Degree
We use adverb clause of degree to modify verb in main clause.
Subordinating Conjunctions: according to as, according to how
Example:
- She will be paid according to how she works.
- According to how she works, she will be paid.
j) Adverb Clause of Means
We use adverb clause of means to modify verb in main clause.
Subordinating Conjunctions: by the fact that, by whatever means, by what means.
Example:
- You can recognize her easily by the fact that she speaks loudly.
- By the fact that she speaks loudly, you can recognize her easily.
k) Adverb Clause of Comparison
We use adverb clause of comparison to modify verb in main clause.
Subordinating Conjunctions: small, fast, hard, slow, late…
Subject + verb + as + adjective/adverb + as + subject + verb + comp
Example:
- Your book is as small as my book is.
- You speak as fast as she does.
Sub + verb + adj/adv-er /more-adj/adv + than + sub + verb + comp
Example:
- She runs faster than I do.
- They speak more fluently than he does.


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